Standards for Civics and Economics examine the roles citizens play in the political, governmental, and economic systems in the United States. Students examine the constitutions of Virginia and the United States; identify the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens; and describe the structure and operation of government at the local, state, and national levels. Students investigate the process by which decisions are made in the American market economy and explain the government's role in it. The standards identify personal character traits, such as patriotism, respect for the law, and a sense of civic duty, that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in the civic life of an increasingly diverse democratic society.
Civic education also must emphasize the intellectual skills required for responsible citizenship. Students practice these skills as they extend their understanding of the essential knowledge defined by the standards for Civics and Economics.
CE.1 The student will develop the social studies skills citizenship requires, including the ability to
a) examine and interpret primary and secondary source documents;
b) create and explain maps, diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, and spreadsheets;
c) analyze political cartoons, political advertisements, pictures, and other graphic media;
d) distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information;
e) review information for accuracy, separating fact from opinion;
f) identify a problem and recommend solutions;
g) select and defend positions in writing, discussion, and debate.
CE.2 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the foundations of American constitutional government by
a) explaining the fundamental principles of consent of the governed, limited government, rule of law, democracy, and representative government;
b) explaining the significance of the charters of the Virginia Company of London, the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the Articles of Confederation, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, and the Constitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights;
c) identifying the purposes for the Constitution of the United States as they are stated in its Preamble.
CE.3 The student will demonstrate knowledge of citizenship and the rights, duties, and responsibilities of citizens by
a) describing the processes by which an individual becomes a citizen of the United States;
b) describing the First Amendment freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition, and the rights guaranteed by due process and equal protection of the laws;
c) describing the duties of citizenship, including obeying the laws, paying taxes, defending the nation, and serving in court;
d) examining the responsibilities of citizenship, including registering and voting, communicating with government officials, participating in political campaigns, keeping informed about current issues, and respecting differing opinions in a diverse society;
e) evaluating how civic and social duties address community needs and serve the public good.
CE.4 The student will demonstrate knowledge of personal character traits that facilitate thoughtful and effective participation in civic life by
a) practicing trustworthiness and honesty;
b) practicing courtesy and respect for the rights of others;
c) practicing responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance;
d) practicing respect for the law;
e) practicing patriotism.
CE.5 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the political process at the local, state, and national levels of government by
a) describing the functions of political parties;
b) comparing the similarities and differences of political parties;
c) analyzing campaigns for elective office, with emphasis on the role of the media;
d) examining the role of campaign contributions and costs;
e) describing voter registration and participation;
f) describing the role of the Electoral College in the election of the President and Vice President.
CE.6 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the American constitutional government by
a) explaining the relationship of state governments to the national government in the federal system;
b) describing the structure and powers of local, state, and national governments;
c) explaining the principle of separation of powers and the operation of checks and balances;
d) identifying the procedures for amending the Constitution of the United States.
CE.7 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how public policy is made at the local, state, and national levels of government by
a) explaining the lawmaking process;
b) describing the roles and powers of the executive branch;
c) examining the impact of the media on public opinion and public policy;
d) describing how individuals and interest groups influence public policy.
CE.8 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the judicial systems established by the Constitution of Virginia and the Constitution of the United States by
a) describing the organization and jurisdiction of federal and state courts;
b) describing the exercise of judicial review;
c) explaining court proceedings in civil and criminal cases;
d) explaining how due process protections seek to ensure justice.
CE.9 The student will demonstrate knowledge of how economic decisions are made in the marketplace by
a) applying the concepts of scarcity, resources, choice, opportunity cost, price, incentives, supply and demand, production, and consumption;
b) comparing the differences among free market, command, and mixed economies;
c) describing the characteristics of the United States economy, including free markets, private property, profit, and competition.
CE.10 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the structure and operation of the United States economy by
a) describing the types of business organizations and the role of entrepreneurship;
b) explaining the circular flow that shows how consumers (households), businesses (producers), and markets interact;
c) explaining how financial institutions encourage saving and investing;
d) examining the relationship of Virginia and the United States to the global economy, with emphasis on the impact of technological innovations.
CE.11 The student will demonstrate knowledge of the role of government in the United States economy by
a) examining competition in the marketplace;
b) explaining the creation of public goods and services;
c) describing the impact of taxation, including an understanding of the reasons for the 16 th amendment, spending, and borrowing;
d) explaining how the Federal Reserve System regulates the money supply;
e) describing the protection of consumer rights and property rights.
CE.12 The student will demonstrate knowledge of career opportunities by
a) identifying talents, interests, and aspirations that influence career choice;
b) identifying attitudes and behaviors that strengthen the individual work ethic and promote career success;
c) identifying skills and education that careers require;
d) examining the impact of technological change on career opportunities.
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