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HR1/S1 is a Continuation of Goals 2000/School-to-Work
Sep 25, 2001

The following are excerpts from three federal laws:

Goals 2000: Educate America Act of 1994
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) reauthorization, HR6 of 1994
Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) reauthorization, "No Child Left Behind," HR1/S1 of 2001
These excerpts demonstrate the alignment of the proposed federal education funding ("No Child Left Behind," HR1.), now before Congress, with Goals 2000 and School-to-Work (STW), along with the ESEA of 1994 (or HR6).

Back in 1994, Goals 2000 provided the "framework for all federal education funding," and it provided a "carrot" of money for states if they restructured their state education legislation to be compliant with Goals 2000 and STW. The 1994 ESEA reauthorization, HR6, at the same time, provided a requirement that states restructure their education legislation to be compliant with Goals 2000 and STW. This HR6 was the "stick" that removed all federal Title I money from states if they would not restructure education. In addition, placing the federal government in authority over all state education plans was included in both Goals 2000 and HR6.

The new proposed ESEA reauthorization of 2001, "No Child Left Behind" (HR1), continues the restructuring mandate of 1994 through both the "carrot" approach, that is found in Goals 2000, and the "stick" approach, that is found in HR6. In addition, the accountability system put in place in 1994 is continued in "No Child Left Behind," though it dramatically expands the authority of the federal government over all schools and all curriculum in the country.

Finally, HR6 authorized a specific nonprofit group, the Center for Civic Education (CCE), to develop national standards and a model curriculum for Civics Education and Government. No oversight by any elected or appointed board is provided. "No Child Left Behind" continues that authorization and provides the CCE an unlimited amount of money to accomplish its purpose.


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GOALS 2000: EDUCATE AMERICA ACT 1994

Goals 2000 provides the framework for all federal education funding:

Section 2: Purpose The purpose of this Act is to provide a framework for meeting the National Education Goals established by title I of the Act by-- ...(6) providing a framework for the reauthorization of all federal education programs by--(D) encouraging states to develop comprehensive plans that will provide a coherent framework for the implementation of re-authorized federal education and related programs in an integrated fashion..

["Re-authorized federal education programs" include the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA). Title I is the bulk of federal education funds that states receive. Most schools accept federal Title I money.]



Grant money is available to states that develop a federally approved education plan -- the carrot:

Title III, Section 305: Each state that desires to receive [a grant] under this title shall submit an application to the Secretary [of the federal Department of Education].

Section 306: (a)Each state that wishes to receive [a grant]...shall develop and implement a plan.

(n)(1) The Secretary (of the federal Department of Education) shall review...each state plan...

(2) The Secretary shall approve a state plan...when the Secretary determines that such plan (C) meets the requirements [of this Act].

[Requiring the Secretary of the Department of Education to approve a state education plan is a violation of the U.S. Constitution under the 10th amendment.]



State content and performance standards must be consistent with the National Goals, and they must align local curricula and assessments with those standards:

Title III, Section 306(c) Each state...shall establish strategies for meeting the National Education Goals. Such strategies (1)shall include (A) a process for developing state content standards and state student performance standards for all students...(B) a process for developing... state assessments (I) to be aligned with the state's content standards...(C) a process for aligning state or local curricula, instructional materials, and state assessments with the state content standards and state student performance standards.


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ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT (ESEA)

IMPROVING AMERICA'S SCHOOLS ACT: HR6 1994

Any state wishing to receive Title I money must develop a federally approved education plan that is coordinated with Goals 2000 -- the stick:

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(a)(1) Any state desiring to receive a grant [Title I money] shall submit a plan to the Secretary...that is coordinated with the Goals 2000: Education America Act...

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(d)(1)(C) The Secretary shall approve a state plan if the Secretary determines meets the requirements of [this Act].

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(d)(1)(F) The Secretary shall have the authority to disapprove a state plan for not meeting the requirements of this part...

All activities under the state plan must be coordinated with school-to-work involving business, labor and industry:

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(c)(6) the state will coordinate activities funded under this part with school-to-work, vocational education, cooperative education and mentoring programs, and apprenticeship programs involving business, labor, and industry, as appropriate.

The plan must develop content and performance standards that will be used by the local schools and by the state in its assessments:

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(b)(1)(A) Each state plan shall demonstrate that the state has developed content standards and performance standards that will be used by the state and its schools to carry out this part.

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(b)(1)(B) If a state has standards developed under title III of the Goals 2000 Act, and an aligned set of assessments, the state shall use such standards and assessments to [meet] the requirements [of this Act].

The local school districts and the state are accountable to the federal government.

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(b)(2)(A) Each state plan shall demonstrate adequate yearly progress of any school [that receives Title I money] and any local [school district] that receive funds under this part. [Emphasis added.]

[This is a violation of the U.S. Constitution under the 10th amendment.]

The federal government authorizes the Center for Civic Education, a particular NGO, to set up a federal curriculum in civic education and government to be compliant with Goals 2000, with no review or oversight by any elected or appointed entity. [The CCE Standards do not teach the 10th amendment.]

Title X, Section 10601 (a)(1)(A) The Secretary is authorized to carry out a program to enhance the third and sixth National Education Goals by educating students about the history and principles of the Constitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights, and to foster civic competence and responsibility. (B) Such programs shall be known as 'We the People...The Citizen and the Constitution'. (2) The programs shall (A) continue and expand the educational activities of the 'We the People...The Citizen and the Constitution' program administered by the Center for Civic Education [Emphasis added.]; and (B) enhance student attainment of challenging content standards in civics and government. (3) The Secretary is authorized to award a grant or enter into a contract with the Center for Civic Education to carry out the program described in paragraph (1).

Title X, Section 10601 (b) The education program authorized by this section shall provide (1) a course of instruction on the basic principles of our Nation's constitutional democracy and the history of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights;

Title X, Section 10601 (c) The education program authorized by this section shall be made available to public and private elementary and secondary schools...

Title X, Section 10601 (d)...funds provided under this section may be used for (1) advanced training of teachers about the United States Constitution and the political system the United States creates; or (2) a course of instruction at the middle school level on the roles of state and local governments in the federal system established by the Constitution.



The federal government provides grant money to states or local school districts if they will use the above curriculum -- another carrot.

Title X, Section 10601(a) The Secretary is authorized to carry out a program of awarding grants and contracts to assist state and local [districts] to enhance (2) attainment by the Nation of the third and the sixth National Education Goals.


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ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT (ESEA): HR1
NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND, 2001

A penalty is given to states that do not fully comply with implementing the 1994 HR6 plans. [HR6 requires compliance with Goals 2000 and with school-to-work.] No waivers are allowed:

Title I, Sec. 1111(g)(1) If a state fails to meet the deadlines established by the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 under any waiver granted by the Secretary (or under any compliance agreement with the Secretary) for demonstrating that it has in place challenging academic content standards and student achievement standards, and a system for measuring and monitoring adequate yearly progress, the Secretary shall withhold 25 percent of the funds that would otherwise be available for state administration and activities in each year until the Secretary determines that the state meets those requirements...the Secretary shall not grant any additional waivers of, or enter into any additional compliance agreements to extend, the deadlines described [above] for any state.



Grant money is available to states to develop the federally approved education plan, as was done with Goals 2000 grants -- the carrot of Goals 2000:

Title VI Part A, Subpart 1 Sec. 6111 the Secretary shall make grants to states to enable the States to pay the costs of the development of the additional state assessments and standards... and developing academic content and achievement standards and aligned assessments



Any state wishing to receive Title I money must have a federally approved education plan in place -- the stick of HR6.

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(a)(1) Any state desiring to receive a grant [Title I money] shall submit to the Secretary a plan...that is coordinated with other programs under this Act...

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(e)(1)The Secretary shall (C) approve a state plan within 120 days of its submission unless the Secretary determines that the plan does not meet the requirements of this [Act];

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(e)(1)The Secretary shall (F) have the authority to disapprove a state plan for not meeting the requirements of this part...

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(e)(2) A State shall revise its State plan if necessary to satisfy the requirements of this [Act}.



The plan must have content and achievement (i.e., performance) standards that will be used by the local schools and by the state in its assessments:

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(b)(1)(A) Each state plan shall demonstrate that the state has developed challenging academic content standards and challenging student academic achievement standards that will be used by the state, its local educational agencies, and its schools.

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1,Sec. 1111(b)(1)(D)(i) Challenging academic content in academic subjects that (I) specify what children are expected to know and BE ABLE TO DO. [Our emphasis. This is the description of "performance" standards, but the word ""performance" has been removed.]

The local school districts and the state are accountable to the federal government.

Title I, Part A, Subpart 1, Sec. 1111(b)(2)(A) Each state plan shall demonstrate that the state has developed and is implementing a statewide statewide accountability system that [demonstrates] ...adequate yearly progress as defined [in this Act]...

[This is the same violation of the U.S. Constitution under the 10th amendment.]

The federal government continues the HR6 authorization to the Center for Civic Education, a particular NGO, to set up a federal curriculum in Civics Education and Government, with no review or oversight by any elected or appointed entity.

Title II, Chapter C, Section 2344(a)(1)(A) The Center for Civic Education shall use funds made available under grants or contracts under [this part] (i) to continue and expand the educational activities of the program entitled the 'We the People...The Citizen and the Constitution' administered by such center...(iii) to provide a course of instruction on the basic principles of the Nation's constitutional democracy and the history of the Constitution of the United States, including the Bill of Rights; [Emphasis added.]

Title II, Chapter C, Section 2344 (a)(1)(B) The Center for Civic Education may use assistance made available under [this part] to provide advanced sustained and ongoing training of teachers about the Constitution of the United States and the political system of the United States;

Title II, Chapter C, Section 2344 (b)(1)(A) The Center for Civic Education shall use funds made available under grants or contracts under [this part] (i) to continue and expand the educational activities of the program entitled the 'We the People...Project Citizen' program administered by the Center;... (iii) to provide a course of instruction at the middle school level on the rules of state and local governments in the federal system established by the Constitution of the United States;

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